Jumat, 06 April 2012

Defeniton Marketing



A.   Defenition  Marketing

            Marketing has a very determining role for marketing in a position as an intermediary between producers and consumers. Marketing is a sequences of closely inter-related activities and aims to satisfy the needs and desires of men through the exchange process. Thus enterprises in carrying out its need for and developing the marketing system.
Any aspect of the marketing problem is very important for enterprises to carry out the wheel of his enterprise, because it is not unusual due to company failures are less than perfect marketing system. For more details, PhilipKotler (1997) states Marketing is a social and managerial process in which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want to create, offer, and exchange-value products with others. Marketing activities can not be separated from the whole range of enterprise business activities because in it there are many parts that must be understood and implemented in particular by a marketer / marketing board. While the meaning according to WilliamJ.Stanton (1993), namely: Marketing is a total system of business activities designed to plan, pricing, promoting and distributing goods and services to better satisfy the consumers' currentand potential consumers.
            Kotler : “Marketing is a social and managerial process in which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want to create, offer, and exchange prosuk valuable to others.
Alex S. Nitisetimo  : Marketing is all for improving the effectiveness of current activities of goods and services from producers to consumers in the most efficient with the purpose to create a demand for manufacturers.
Basu Swastha  : Marketing is a business philosophy stating that pemuasaan consumer needs is economic and social conditions for the survival of the enterprise.
Musrid : Marketing is all business activities related to the current delivery of goods and services of the manufacturer to the consumer.
Marwan : Marketing is an integrated effort to devise strategies directed at satisfying needs and wants of business buyers, to get the sales that result in gains.
B.   MARKETING THEORY
If it is said that marketing is a dynamic science, it is true. History of marketing theories and concepts are always with changing social and economic structure of society. The emergence of new ideas that enrich the knowledge of marketing continues to expand as big a revolution of human civilization.
Maybe there are still many who do not know that the civilization of modern business growing since the industrial revolution in 1900. This revolutionary fabric actually change the structure and behavior of society at that time. Business that was featured merkantilis (trade) and then transformed into a capitalist. Capital strength used to build factories and industrial organizations, and produce goods.
In this process there appears a new perspective on how market behavior occurs and how a board conducting operational activities to meet the needs of the market. These matters are then m advent of practical knowledge management business, including marketing.

It may be, knowledge of marketing as were their answers to many questions that can not be accommodated by the knowledge economy has to grow first. Marketing was originally nothing more than a simple business activity. The economists also only put it as one form of economic activity.
However, a more sociological nature and shows the development of the institution (the board) which is referred to as the "market" in the economy. Sociological approach to look at market institutions can be viewed as a social institution than the economy. That is, the market is not only a meeting place for supply and demand. Market is a meeting place for buyers and sellers. Market is a social system in which each party will need certain materials to be met.
At that time, consumption is considered as the end of production activities in the world economy. But personal consumption behavior is actually a knowledge that can be explored deeper. This is the case with the term "value". Knowledge of place value in relation to economic
with increasing input of production factors. But the world's business, the value also includes the intangible things like service.
Marketing approach is also questioning whether the market is influenced only by the purchasing power (purchasing power) of society? Further away from the business practitioners to see that the market is not just influenced by their purchasing power, but also the desire to buy the
influenced by advertising and sellers of energy. Advertising Appears More Before
Reportedly the first class marketing education provided by ED Jones in 1902 at the University of Michigan and later by Simon Litman of the University of California in the same year. At that time, thought, marketing is still focused on the problem of distribution. This is in accordance with the early stages of the industry features that focus on mass distribution. However, the expansion of the early thinking marketing theory thus emerged from universities such as Wisconsin, Harvard, Ohio State, University of Illinois and Northwestern University.
In fact, although not included in the marketing discipline, thinking about the world of advertising (advertising) was already there. History of Advertising book has appeared in 1875. It is likewise the case with the selling has been leading the development of marketing knowledge itself. Initially selling just an art to sell, but then used a formula to be studied and analyzed.
Marketing approach was initially involve three elements: advertising, selling and distribution. However, a lot of thought and then add the elements in the marketing. As Ralph Butler and Arch Shaw, two members of this adds another element
in marketing, namely: commodities, institutions, and functional. This means that concerns about the question of product marketing, marketing organization and the processes and activities.
For the element distribution, developed new thinking is called Retailing since 1914. Nystrom then writes literature not only from the presence of retail distribution process, but also the retail management. With the additional new elements in the marketing,
the knowledge into marketing and integration stages. At this point the thinkers and scientists try to combine various forms of knowledge, literature as well as stand-alone elements into an integrated concept. Principles of Marketing first appeared via the hands of Paul Ivey in the 1920's. This book combines all the theories and ideas developed in the marketing world. But, the more dominant then the book Principles of Marketing essay Maynard, Weidler, and Beckman. Ivey different than focusing on the side of the industry, this book is more focused at an angle
of view of consumers.
Marketing theory has not ended with open earlier books. In the next decade-the decade that enrich enter a variety of marketing elements. Knowledge in psychological and social effect. So it is with new concepts such as segmentation appear later after emerging concepts such as marketing mix.
Elements in marketing itself has developed. For example, targeted knowledge with the entrance of the growing new media such as television which began popular in the 1960s. In the 1960s and 1970s, thus breaking the self-marketing knowledge in a variety of differentiation (specificity) as international marketing, social marketing, marketing for non-profit organization and others. The concept of social responsibility is also one concept that is beginning to form in 1970.


C.   Advantages And Disadvantages of Marketing

a.    Advantages
An obvious advantages of marketing is the promotion of business, getting the recognition and attention of your target audience across a wide ranging or specific market. Going hand – in –hand with this is the enhanced brand recognition. Over time potential customers and members of the public will begin to associate your logo and your brand with your business.
Every business needs to spend money to make money. Investing in marketing is not different. The most important advantages of marketing is therefore quiet simply improving the business profits by boosting sales. 
b.    Disadvantages
The first disadvantages of marketing in general is the cost. Adverting and marketing cost money.  If don’t do the proper research then you might end up throwing money away. Wasting marketing efforts by targeting the wrong audience using an inappropriate medium would be a serious and costly mistake. So it is important to do your research beforehand and keep your coust to a minimum.
 As well as financial cost, marketing your business will require investment of time researching the appropriate marketing strategy, designing and writing the adverts, getting them published., dealing  with any response. It’s important to spend time keeping track of how successful or not your marketing campaign is. A potential disadvantages of marketing here is the risk of time wasted for an unsuccessful campaign.
Research show that people in general have to see a piece of information between 3 and 30 times before it sinks in. so the obvious disadvantage of marketing campaign will need to be ongoing and consistent. Increasing cost and time spent on it. This is where drip marketing comes in.





D.   History
In the study of any academic discipline, ideas and issues are discussed and debated. Over the course of time these concepts and arguments cluster into critical masses that may be described as a means of organizing subject matter, an approach to understanding the discipline, or as a school of marketing thought. Several articles already exist reviewing the history of individual schools of marketing thought, particularly Hollander (1980) on the institutional school;Hunt and Goolsby (1988) on functions; Murphy and Enis (1986) and Zinn and Johnson (1990) on the commodity school; Savitt (1981) on interregional trade; Sheth and Gross (1988) on the consumer behavior school; Webster (1992) on marketing management; and Wilkie and Moore (2002, 2003) on twin areas of macromarketing: marketing and society, and marketing and public policy. In addition, there are published reviews on some of the sub-areas of schools, such as Fisk et al. (1993) on Services Marketing; and Berry (1995) on Relationship Marketing. Finally, there are also two excellent books on the subject of schools of marketing thought and theory: Bartels’ (1988) The History of Marketing Thought and Sheth et al.’s (1988)  Marketing Theory: Evolution and Evaluation.  Why yet another history? Unfortunately, the review articles focus on the history of individual schools, or a sub-area within a school, and miss the wider landscape of their fit with other schools and the whole of marketing thought. Also, despite their seminal contri-butions to the marketing literature, there are some limitations in each of the books. Bartels’ (1988) work primarily focuses on sub-areas of marketing, rather than schools of thought. Although traditional schools are discussed in his general marketing section, and there is a chapter on marketing management and one on ‘newer areas’, the book is a general history of marketing as an academic discipline, organized chronologically, rather than a focus on schools of marketing thought. Sheth et al. (1988) provide the most comprehensive work on schools of market-ing thought. Their book mainly centers on the theoretical evaluation of these schools, however, rather than their historical evolution. The purpose of this work is to bring the history of schools of marketing thought up to date. We provide new insights into the origins and development of the  traditional schools. We discuss the paradigm shift resulting in an array of newer  schools during the mid 1950s, and the subsequent paradigm broadening of the most popular schools of marketing thought in the mid 1970s. Based on this historical analysis, the article examines the state of marketing thought at the beginning of the 21st century, describes how the schools are interrelated with one another, explains the crossroads at which the discipline currently finds itself and proposes a path for the future. Because of its panoramic scope in discussing 12 schools of marketing theory, the pioneering work of Sheth et al. (1988) provides a useful starting point. Among other points of departure, we reduce the number of schools from 12 to 10. We include their ‘activist’ school in ‘macromarketing’ because it deals with con-sumerism or consumption in the aggregate. Also we fold their ‘organizational dynamics school’ into the ‘institutional school’ because we believe the behavioral dimensions of the former should be linked with the economic dimensions of the latter to more fully understand the operations of trading firms in channels of dis-tribution. We also exclude ‘functionalism’, because it does not fit our (or their) marketing theory 5(3)  from definition of a school of marketing thought. Only a single marketing scholar – Wroe Alderson – described it in only two books; and more importantly we show that functionalism is subsumed within another school – marketing systems – that falls out of Alderson’s work. Additionally, we include marketing history as a school, which was in an embryonic state when Sheth et al. (1988) were writing their book. We define a school of marketing thought as:
 1 a substantial body of knowledge;
2 developed by a number of scholars; and
3 describing at least one aspect of the what, how, who, why, when and where of performing marketing activities.
It is difficult, but useful, to distinguish schools of thought from sub-areas within marketing, such as advertising, sales management, or marketing research (Bartels, 1988). As a first approximation, schools represent a perspective on the whole or at least a large part of marketing, whereas sub-areas are elements within a school, usually within marketing management. Two sub-areas of great significance to the marketing field discussed only peripherally are advertising (see Bartels, 1988;Hotchkiss, 1933) and services marketing (see Fisk et al., 1993; Vargo and Lusch, 2004). Although advertising and services marketing have a larger following than many schools and despite their importance in their own right, space limitations preclude more than a passing discussion of any sub-area, except to the extent itimpacts the development of a school.
E.   Example the good marketing
1.     Podomoro group
2.     Ebenezer group
3.     MNC Group
4.     Garuda Group



F.    Conclusion
Marketing is one of the economic activities that help in creating economic value. Economic value in itself determine the prices of goods and services. Important factor in creating value is the production, marketing and consumption. Marketing a liaison between production and consumption activities. Advantages  of marketing is the promotion of business, getting the recognition and attention of your target audience across a wide ranging or specific market.  Disadvantages of marketing in general is the cost.

           
       

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